A Caesarean section is a surgical procedure in which one or more incisions are made through a mother’s abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterectomy) to deliver one or more babies. A Caesarean section is often performed when a vaginal delivery would put the baby’s or mother’s life or health at risk. Caesarean section is recommended when vaginal delivery might pose a risk to the mother or baby.

Some medical indications for a Caesarean section are complications of labour and factors impeding vaginal delivery, such as abnormal presentation (breech or transverse positions), prolonged labour or a failure to progress (dystocia), foetal distress, cord prolapse, uterine rupture or an elevated risk such as increased blood pressure (hypertension) in the mother or baby after amniotic rupture etc.

Like all types of abdominal surgeries, a Cesarean section is associated with risks of postoperative adhesion, incisional hernias (which may require surgical correction) and wound infections.