Dermatology

What is Dermatology?

Dermatology is a medical speciality that is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the skin, hair and nail.  The speciality involves diagnosis of normal  skin  disorders to cancers, autoimmune disorders , cosmetic and ageing  of the skin, fat, hair, nails and oral and genital membranes, and the management of these certain investigations and therapies.

 

What is the function of skin?

Skin is the largest organ of the human body and functions as:

1) Protect the internal organs from harmful external influences, such as bacteria, viruses, allergens, disease, sun, wind and rain.

2) Holds body fluids in and prevents dehydration

3) Sensory organ for external stimulations

4) Maintains your body temperature

5) Synthesis of vitamin D from the sun

 

What are the layers of the skin?

  • Epidermis, the outermost layer of skin, provides a waterproof barrier and creates our skin tone.
  • Dermis, beneath the epidermis, contains tough connective tissue, hair follicles, and sweat glands.
  • The deeper subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis) is made of fat and connective tissue.
  • The skin’s colour is created by special cells called melanocytes, which produce the pigment melanin. Melanocytes are located in the epidermis.

 

What are the types of skin conditions treated by a dermatologist?

  • Skin cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cancer cells in the skin. Left untreated, these cells can spread to other organs and tissues, such as lymph nodes and bone.
  • Lupus is an autoimmune disease
  • Warts are raised bumps on your skin caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • Psoriasis : Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition that is marked by red and sometimes scaly patches of skin
  • Acne: skin has tiny holes called pores, which can become blocked by oil, bacteria, dead skin cells, and dirt forming pimples .
  • Eczema is a common skin condition marked itchy and inflamed patches of skin. It is also known as atopic dermatitis. It is more common in babies and young children. It occurs on the faces of infants, as well as inside the elbows and behind the knees of children, teenagers, and adults. It is caused by an overactive immune system
  • Corns and calluses are patches of hard, thickened skin. These can be anywhere on your body, but they’re typically found on your feet
  • Vitiligo is a condition in which you lose the pigment of your skin. Pigment, or melanin, causes skin colour and is produced by cells called “melanocytes. These patches are usually areas of your body that are exposed to the sun, such as your, hands ,face, arms and feet.
  • Hives: also known as urticaria, are itchy, raised welts that are found on the skin. They are usually red, pink, or flesh-coloured, and sometimes sting or hurt. In most cases, hives are caused by an allergic reaction to a medication or food or a reaction to an irritant.
  • Herpes Simples: Shingles, or herpes zoster, occurs when the dormant chickenpox virus, varicella-zoster, is reactivated in your nerve tissues. Early signs of shingles include tingling and localized pain.
  • Types of fungal infections also treated.

 

What are the different modalities for skin treatment?

  • Treatment of  skin diseases consists of
  • Systemic drugs (antibacterial, antifungal and corticosteroids)
  • Local drugs(oral and injectable)
  • local therapies(cold compress, soaks and bath )
  • Intralesional Injection For Skin Diseases
  • Surgery
  • Electrolysis
  • Cryosurgery
  • Laser
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FAQs

How does a dermatologist diagnose skin problems?

Discussing the symptoms and examining the skin. Sometimes, additional testing may be necessary. A variety of skin tests are available to help diagnose skin problems such as bacterial, viral, or fungal skin infections. A skin biopsy can be performed to tell the difference between rashes, malignant (cancerous) cells, and benign (noncancerous) growths.

What Causes Psoriasis?

Psoriasis is a skin disorder driven by the immune system, especially involving a type of white blood cell called a T cell. Normally, In the case of psoriasis, T cells are put into action by mistake and become so active that they trigger other immune responses, which lead to inflammation and to rapid turnover of skin cells.

What does psoriasis look like?

Most psoriasis causes patches of thick, red skin with silvery scales. These patches can itch or feel sore. They are often found on the elbows, knees, other parts of the legs, scalp, lower back, face, palms, and soles of the feet.

How Is Psoriasis Treated?

Treatment can include:

  • medicines applied to the skin (topical treatment)
  • light treatment (phototherapy)
  • Medicines by mouth or injection (systemic therapy).
What are symptoms associated with shingles?

An area of skin may burn, itch, tingle, or feel very sensitive. This usually occurs in a small area on 1 side of the body. A rash then appears in the same area and turns into clear blisters. The blisters turn yellow or bloody before they crust over (scab) and heal. The patch of skin is very painful before the shingles appeared. The person may get a fever or headache with the rash.

What is Molluscum contagiosum ?

Is a common skin disease caused by a virus? This virus easily spreads from person to person People can get moll scum by sharing towels and clothing. Wrestlers and gymnasts may get it from touching infected mats. Skin-to-skin contact also spreads the virus.

What causes acne?

The exact cause of acne is not known, but one important factor is an increase in hormones called androgens. These male sex hormones increase in both boys and girls during puberty.

How is sunburn treated?
  • Apply a cold compress to the affected area(s).
  • Take analgesics to relieve discomfort or aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines to relieve discomfort and inflammation.
  • Apply a cooling gel or ointment containing aloe vera, or an over-the-counter 1% hydrocortisone cream to the affected area.
What is eczema?

Also known as atopic dermatitis, this is a long-term skin disease. The most common symptoms are dry and itchy skin, rashes on the face, inside the elbows, behind the knees, and on the hands and feet.

What are hives and how does it appear?

Red and sometimes itchy bumps on your skin, due to an allergic reaction to a drug or food usually some infections and stress. Hives are very common.

What causes Impetigo?

A skin infection caused by bacteria. The cause is due to a staphylococcal bacteria but sometimes streptococcus can cause it, too. It is most common seen in children between the ages of 2 and 6. It usually starts when bacteria get into a break in the skin, such as a cut, scratch, or insect bite. Symptoms generally seen as a red or pimple-like sores surrounded by red skin. It is seen usually on your face, arms, and legs. The sores fill with pus, then break open after a few days and form a thick crust. Impetigo can be treated with antibiotics.

What are moles are they cancerous?

Moles are described as growths on the skin. It occurs when cells in the skin, called melanocytes, grow in a cluster with tissue surrounding them. Most people have between 10 and 40 moles. A person may develop new moles from time to time, usually until about age 40. Generally not cancerous in nature type of skin cancer. However you should examine the same in case they look unusual, grow larger, change in colour or outline, or in any other way.

What is a Melanoma?

A severe and potentially life-threatening skin cancer is called a Melanoma. Following are the criteria to be looked for when examining melanoma:

  1. Asymmetry: the shape of one half does not match the other
  2. Border: the edges are ragged, blurred, or irregular
  3. Colour: the colour is uneven and may include shades of black, brown, and tan
  4. Diameter: there is a change in size, usually an increase

Treatment of melanoma maybe surgery, chemotherapy, biological therapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of those.

What is dermatitis?

Is a condition where there is Dry and itchy skin. Rashes on the face, inside the elbows, behind the knees, and on the hands and feet are common areas for dermatitis.

What is Rosacea?

Frequent redness (flushing) of the face; small red lines under the skin; inflamed eyes/eyelids, a swollen nose, and thicker skin. There is no cure for rosacea, but it can be treated and controlled.

What are warts?

A small, fleshy bump on the skin or mucous membrane caused by human papillomavirus.

What is a ringworm infection?

A highly contagious fungal infection of the skin or scalp.

How is Scabies caused?

A contagious, intensely itchy skin condition caused by a tiny, burrowing mite.

What are the various types of skin cancer?

The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common.

What are some cosmetic treatments for skin?
  • Botulinum toxin therapy: botulinum toxin therapy to diminish signs of aging and to treat a medical condition called hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating).
  • Chemical peels: A chemical peel can diminish many signs of aging on the face as well as the hands, neck, and chest. Chemical peels also treat some skin conditions. Dermatologists use chemical peels to treat some types of acne and conditions that discolour the skin.
  • Fillers: Also called soft-tissue fillers, dermal fillers, soft-tissue augmentation. Fillers help to restore lost fullness to the face, lips, and hands.
  • Laser hair removal
  • Microdermabrasion: This non-invasive treatment gently exfoliates your skin. After a series of treatments, your complexion can appear smoother, brighter, and more even in colour.
What is electrolysis?

Electrolysis is a hair removal options professionally performed electrolysis eliminates unwanted hair, permanently, with unsurpassed results. Moreover, it does so for the largest variety of skin and hair types. In medical electrolysis the devices destroy the growth centre of the hair by chemical or heat energy. After which a very fine probe is inserted into the hair follicle, the hair is removed with tweezers.

What is cryosurgery?

Cryotherapy is a procedure that uses extreme cold (liquid nitrogen) to destroy tissue. It's often used to treat skin lesions, which are skin growths or patches around them. Lesions that may be treated by cryotherapy include:

  • Actinic keratosis
  • Viral warts
  • Seborrheic keratosis (senile warts)
How is laser surgery used to treat various skin conditions?

Laser treatment to help remove wrinkles is called a laser peel. Laser resurfacing reduces facial wrinkles and skin irregularities, such as blemishes or acne scars. The technique involves short, concentrated pulsating beams of light at irregular skin, precisely removing skin layer by layer.

Conditions were it is used:

  • A port-wine stain is a birthmark caused by swollen blood vessels
  • Haemangiomas another type of birthmark
  • Café au lait spots: tan-coloured lesions that may appear anywhere on the body. The size of the lesions varies
  • Telangiectasias: These are small blood vessels under the surface of the skin. They may be red, purple, or blue.
  • Wrinkles: Laser treatment to help remove wrinkles is called a laser peel.
  • Warts: Warts are growths of skin or membrane. They are benign. This means they are not cancer. Warts are caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV) .
  • Scars: Scars may occur for many different reasons. These include infections, surgery, injuries, or inflammation of tissue
  • Tattoo removal
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